The collision of 10,000-year-old ceramic materials and modern smartphones

The collision of 10,000-year-old ceramic materials and modern smartphones

2021-11-12 17:11:29 5

[Introduction] Ceramics is a cultural treasure of China and an important part of the Chinese civilization. As early as more than 10,000 years ago in the Neolithic era, our forefathers would have made and used pottery. Time crosses ten thousand years, and the cell phone, which also appears as a practical object, has become a representative of the user's personal taste in technology and aesthetics. If the ceramic is presented on the cell phone, what kind of spark will be collided?


Cell phone backplane


At present, cell phone backplane materials are mainly plastic, metal, glass and ceramic.


Plastic backplane has better overall performance, but its wear resistance, heat dissipation and body feel are poor, easy to aging, mainly used in low-end cell phones.


Metal backplane has the advantages of anti-drop, high plasticity and good heat dissipation, and has become the standard for mainstream cell phones. With the advent of 5G network, wireless charging and other times, smart phones are increasingly demanding on signal transmission, the widely used aluminum-magnesium alloy for cell phone backplane can not meet the requirements of 5G signal transmission because of its strong signal shielding, and wireless charging is not available, which has become a key factor limiting its development.


In recent years, the glass backplane has also been more used in smartphones, the advantages of the glass body mainly lies in avoiding the shielding of cell phone signals, texture and feel better, but because the glass is a class of amorphous material of silicon dioxide, so it is easy to break and produce scratches. The world's largest supplier of cell phone glass U.S. Corning launched the fifth generation of Gorilla Glass, although its strength has been improved, but its hardness is still not as good as sand, easy to produce scratches. In addition, glass processing is more difficult than metal, especially the curved surface and cell phone frame and other processing techniques; at the same time, tempered glass fracture easy to form striped fracture pattern thus easy to cause chipping edge.


Ceramic backplane bending strength, hardness, wear resistance, heat dissipation and other properties better than the glass backplane, and become an important choice for cell phone manufacturers to achieve cell phone material differentiation. At present, the ceramic materials used to make cell phone backsheets are zirconia, alumina, silicon carbide, etc. Among them, zirconia is the most widely used ceramic material for cell phone backsheets. In the same strength of the ceramic backplane than the glass thin, can be thinned by about 40%, leaving more room for cell phone structure design. In addition, the surface of ceramic backplane can be processed to obtain a variety of surface effects, such as bright, matte, brushed and other mechanical textures; the surface can also be processed by Laser, MCVN, PVD, screen printing, painting and edge C corner, R corner and other processes.



Fingerprint recognition module


Fingerprint recognition module is mainly composed of metal ring, cover plate, sensor, driver chip, printed circuit board and other parts. Among them, the fingerprint recognition cover is an important indicator to distinguish the good and bad fingerprint recognition, which has the protective effect on the sensor and driver chip, and is also one of the key factors to determine the speed of fingerprint unlocking.


According to the different materials of fingerprint recognition cover, it can be divided into 4 types: sapphire, coated, glass and ceramic.


The coated type has low cost, but its coating hardness is low, easy to wear, short service life, poor texture and overall aesthetics, and is mainly used in low-end cell phones.


Tempered glass has the advantages of low cost and simple preparation process, but its hardness is low, easy to wear, poor dielectric constant and bending strength, and the thinnest thickness is only 0.175mm, so it is difficult to be used in the middle and high-end fingerprint identification field.


Sapphire has high hardness, wear and corrosion resistance, but its cost is high, penetration, fracture toughness is poor, and the overall resistance to fall is not strong.


Zirconia ceramic has better overall performance, its high hardness is second only to sapphire, and good toughness (6MPa-m1/2), which improves the overall impact and drop resistance of the cover under the same thickness. At the same time, its high dielectric constant (32 to 35), strong penetration ability, sensitive identification and speed, is one of the most suitable materials for surface patching.


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Microwave Dielectric Ceramics


Microwave dielectric ceramics is a key material for microwave dielectric filters and resonators, which are key components in 5G mobile communication technology. The so-called microwave dielectric ceramics is a dielectric material that can be applied to microwave frequency circuits from 300MHz to 30GHz to achieve a variety of functions of ceramic materials. Considered from the perspective of microwave dielectric properties, microwave dielectric ceramics for mobile communications require materials with medium dielectric constant, high quality factor and near zero temperature coefficient of resonant frequency. Microwave dielectric ceramic materials include a wide variety of types, mainly the following.


(1) BaO-TiO2 system microwave dielectric ceramics.


BaO-TiO2 system microwave dielectric ceramic dielectric properties change with the change of TiO2 content in the ceramic, especially BaTi4O9, Ba2Ti9O20 these two BaO-TiO2 system microwave dielectric ceramics, due to its more suitable for the application of microwave dielectric properties, and the practitioners are very popular.


(2) BaO-Ln2O3-TiO2 system microwave dielectric ceramics.


This microwave dielectric ceramic contains lanthanide elements La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, etc., with dielectric constants between 80 and 90, and can be used in the field of small microwave communication devices.


When the lanthanide elements are La, Pr and Nd, the temperature coefficient is positive; when the lanthanide elements are Sm, Eu and Gd, the temperature coefficient is negative, and thus the temperature compensation effect can be produced. By adjusting the ratio of components of BaO-Ln2O3-TiO2 system microwave dielectric ceramics, microwave dielectric ceramics with zero frequency temperature coefficient can be prepared.


At present, the mixed lanthanide components of Ba-Nd-Sm-Ti microwave dielectric ceramics are more popular, the dielectric constant of this microwave dielectric ceramics between 100 to 210, the loss is small, the resonant frequency and temperature coefficient are low.


(3) composite chalcogenide system microwave dielectric ceramics.


Dielectric high-Q microwave ceramic system MTiO3-LnAlO3 has excellent microwave performance and the tunability of the chalcogenide structure, this type of chalcogenide structure microwave dielectric ceramics with medium dielectric constant (about 45), high quality factor Q × f (about 40,000 GHz), resonant frequency temperature coefficient adjustable and other advantages.


However, their sintering temperature is above 1500°C. This makes the energy consumption high, and if the sintering temperature can be reduced, the sintering cost can be reduced. One of the most common methods to reduce the sintering temperature of ceramics is to use doping sintering additives to achieve, but this method will introduce impurities, making the ceramic properties of uncontrollable factors increase.


(4) lead-based chalcogenide microwave dielectric ceramics.


Lead-based chalcogenide microwave dielectric ceramics mainly refers to (Pb1-xCax) ZrO3 system composed of microwave dielectric ceramic materials, and where ZrO3 has a variety of other manifestations of different metal oxides.

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