Natural abrasives performance characteristics and applications (2)

Natural abrasives performance characteristics and applications (2)

2021-11-09 13:17:11 7

4、Quartz, flint

Quartz sand is a hard, wear-resistant, chemically stable silicate minerals, its main component is SiO2, the color is mostly milky white, colorless translucent, and various other colors. Its hardness is 7 on the Mohs scale, brittle, non-resolving, shell-like fracture, greasy luster, density 2.65g/cm3, its chemical, thermal and mechanical properties have obvious anisotropy, insoluble in acid, melting point 1750℃. The quartz ores used as abrasives are vein quartz, quartzite and quartz sand, etc.


The sand initially used for sandpaper is the fine grain quartz sand. The hardness of quartz sand can be used for wood processing, but the toughness is not very high and not sharp enough. Quartz sand production of sand cloth or sandpaper to lower than the price of sand cloth or sandpaper produced with artificial abrasives, sold in the vast number of rural and township enterprises, although the quality is inferior, but the price is low, there is also a certain market. Fine woodworking sometimes use tunnel stone sandpaper. Tunnel stone is a microcrystalline quartz rock, containing more impurities, less hard than quartz, but good toughness, its sharp edges can be maintained for a longer time. Tunnel stone is also used in the polishing process of leather, felt, etc.


Quartz is also mostly used for sandblasting. The working principle of sandblasting machine is to use compressed air to drive the abrasive jet to the surface of the workpiece, microscopic cutting or impact on the surface of the workpiece, in order to achieve the rust removal, paint removal, surface impurities, surface strengthening and various decorative treatment of the workpiece. The particle form of quartz is close to round and oval, in a certain mechanicalmachine/external impact and certain lubricant conditions exist on the metal surface impact will not cause scratches, pits and other phenomena, fine particles can effectively reach the surface of the required cleaning materials. Quartz has a Mohs hardness of 7, which is medium to high among mineral materials, and can effectively remove protruding burrs, rust, etc. from metal surfaces. Since quartz sand is harmful to humans, it is safer to use mineral sands such as olivine, garnet and crossite.


5、Pumice, diatomaceous earth, feldspar, hematite

These minerals or rocks are commonly used for polishing metals, enamel, jewelry, plastics and porcelain.

Pumice is a glassy volcanic rock with a porous structure, the volume of the pores greatly exceeds the volume of the glassy material, so the rock is extremely light and can float on the surface of the water. Pumice is covered with daisy crystals and microcrystals in its glassy texture, the main component is silica, and the particles are very fine. It is softer than quartz sandpaper. Even softer than pumice is feldspar, which is mostly used for household cleaning. Feldspar is an aluminum silicate with a Mohs hardness of 6. The best for polishing and cleaning jewelry and fine porcelain is diatomaceous earth. Diatomaceous earth is mainly composed of the shell of diatoms, the mineral composition is mainly opal, with sub-microscopic crystalline structure, the chemical composition of silica is generally above 70%, high-quality up to 90%. Hematite that iron oxide (purple red iron powder), due to the softer texture, mainly used for workpiece cleaning and polishing purposes, such as part of the optical glass grinding or polishing with purple red iron powder for processing. Iron oxide type abrasives due to the color processing is very troublesome, the degree of environmental pollution, the application of less and less.


6、Perlite

Perlite is a glassy acidic ejected rock with high SiO2 content, more than 65%, generally 65% a 78%. Alkali (K2O ten Na2O) content is high, about 7% a 8%. The water content in perlite is generally 2% one 6%, and the water is wrapped in it when the magma condenses rapidly and the water vapor in it is too late to escape. Perlite is colorless, light gray, blue-green and other colors, glassy luster, generally developed with concentric pearl fissures. The pearl fissure is formed when the perlite condenses and shrinks, and is a characteristic of perlite development. Henan Xinyang Shangtianti perlite deposits, Heilongjiang Muling perlite deposits, Zhejiang Loyun perlite mine are large perlite deposits, reserves are quite rich.


Perlite can become polishing abrasive after the process of crushing, sieving and so on. Perlite abrasives are mainly used in the polishing of TV glass shell, computer display, optical glass instruments and glass craft ornaments. In some computer display production, in order to reduce the reflectivity of the display surface and protect the operator's eyesight, it is necessary to polish the surface of the display glass case. The Mohs hardness of computer display glass case is generally between 6.8 - 7.0, the Mohs hardness of perlite is 5 - 6, medium hardness, very suitable for the grinding of glass case. The perlite abrasive is added to the surface of the glass screen on the grinding machine with a certain pressure, and the mechanical polishing of the surface of the glass screen together with sandpaper, so that the gloss of the surface of the glass shell reaches an appropriate degree.


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