On the characteristics and importance of shaping the shape of the total denture base

On the characteristics and importance of shaping the shape of the total denture base

2021-11-04 17:26:53 4


The production of complete denture should reflect the individual characteristics of the patient, i.e., the shape and function of the denture should be adapted to the patient's age, gender, jaw arch morphology and facial shape to improve its aesthetic value, and should not be uniform.

In order to obtain the best effect of complete denture restoration, we must also pay attention to the shape of the grinding surface of the denture, because the grinding surface of the denture is not only closely related to the aesthetics, but also affects the good retention of the denture to a large extent. 

The influence of the base shape on the retention of the denture cannot be ignored, including the shape of the base edge and the shape of the polished surface. The edge of the abutment should be rounded and blunt, stopping at the mucosal refraction and forming a corresponding cut in the lip, buccal and lingual ligament areas, so that it has good edge closure and does not affect the movement of the lip, buccal and tongue.


The posterior edge of the maxillary denture should be back-banked, and the edge of this part should not be rounded, but should be sloped from back to front, and the posterior edge should be thin. The lingual wing area of the mandibular denture should not be too short, otherwise the denture will be easily lifted when the tongue is lifted, affecting retention.

If the base is concave, the labial and lingual muscles will act on the base to form a clamping force on the denture and make the denture more stable, if it is convex, the labial and lingual muscles will cause dislocation force on the denture and destroy the retention.

1 Abutment gingival neck curve

The relationship between the cervical curve and the morphology of the artificial tooth can be divided into three types: cuspid, oval and square depending on the morphology of the artificial tooth crown. The choice of artificial tooth shape varies greatly from patient to patient and depends on the patient's jaw arch shape and facial shape. 

Usually the facial shape, arch shape and crown shape of a person are consistent with each other, which provides the basis for the selection of the artificial tooth shape and the design of the cervical curve of the abutment, which can be changed by its curvature to accommodate different forms of artificial teeth.


For square-shaped artificial teeth, the curvature of the neck curve should be designed to be small and straight; for cuspid-shaped artificial teeth, the curvature of the neck curve should be increased to show more obvious "crest" and "trough"; 

For oval-shaped artificial teeth, the curvature of the neck curve is in between the above two. If the same form of curve is used for several different forms of artificial teeth, the result will be unsatisfactory for a considerable number of patients. 

The relationship between the cervical curve and age The natural teeth in the mouth continue to erupt slowly throughout their lives to compensate for the physiological wear of the surfaces, in order to maintain a stable vertical distance. Also, with age, the gingival tissue always shows a certain degree of physiological recession. 

As a result of these changes, the gingival attachment moves towards the root and the natural root is gradually partially exposed. Therefore, this change should be fully reflected in the fabrication of complete dentures.


In older patients, the gingival neck curve should be positioned gingivally lower to expose part of the artificial tooth root, and the curve should be slightly less curved and smooth. The opposite is true for younger patients. 

The slope and obliquity of the gingival margin of the abutment was observed in the majority of normal dentate patients, who had a natural slope of about 0.5 mm wide and a distinct angle of about 45° to the tooth surface. 

The presence of this slope and inclination facilitates the flow of food discharge and allows the food to have a certain physiological massage effect on the natural gingiva, without damaging the gingiva. 

Although the gingival massage problem does not exist in the abutment of complete denture, it is still important for the spill and drainage of food. Therefore, the normal morphological relationship between the gingival margin of the abutment and the artificial tooth should be restored. 


2 Lip and buccal side of the base brackets polished surface shape

The lip and buccal side of the brackets should be made into a concave shape that is conducive to muscle support and retention. Specifically, the buccal side of the maxillary abutment is concave in the downward direction and the buccal side of the mandibular abutment is concave in the upward direction. 

This concave shape does not affect the root shape of each tooth, i.e., it only forms a depression between the two adjacent teeth and between the gingival margin and the edge of the abutment, while the root neck of each artificial tooth should still form a certain amount of elevation to resemble the root neck of the natural tooth.

The depression between the teeth not only gives the artificial teeth a sense of three-dimensionality, looks realistic and natural and facilitates the flow of food discharge. 

For those with wide labial and buccal abutments, the method of forming the root of each tooth can also be adopted. 


3 The lingual form of the abutment

The lingual gingival neck curve should be formed on the lingual side of the upper and lower anterior teeth at the same time, and the specific requirements and practices are the same as those for the labio-buccal gingival neck curve. The reproduction of the lingual cervical curve not only makes the denture look beautiful and realistic, but also facilitates the patient's articulation. 

We have selected 20 patients and made two different forms of denture (i.e. sculpted lingual cervical curve and unsculpted lingual cervical curve). 

After 6 to 12 months of use, 16 patients reported that the denture with lingual neck curve was clearer, more accurate and more comfortable to wear than the denture without lingual neck curve, which was closer to the feeling of natural teeth. 

The upper and palate should restore the natural shape of the palatal folds, which are the soft tissue transverse ridges in the anterior part of the maxilla radiating from the midpalatal suture to both sides, with irregular shape and size.

The formation of maxillary palatal folds not only makes the denture realistic and aesthetic, but also more physiological requirements, which is conducive to the patient's pronunciation and comfort. The formation of the folds should be treated on a patient-by-patient basis. The patient's original palatal folds should be restored to their original shape as much as possible.


The thickness of the finely polished abutment is kept at 2 mm and the thickness of the abutment edge is 2.5 mm, and the polished surface of the abutment is concave and beveled, highly smoothed and polished to give the patient a comfortable feeling.

In conclusion, when making a complete denture, we should pay attention to the individual characteristics of artificial tooth selection and arrangement as well as the individual characteristics of abutment fabrication, and combine them organically.

In this way, the denture can achieve the unity of practicality and aesthetics, fully reflect the patient's individual characteristics, enhance the patient's confidence in restoration, so that the full denture can achieve the best results. 


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