What are the applications of electronic ceramic substrates in the field of consumer electronics?

What are the applications of electronic ceramic substrates in the field of consumer electronics?

2021-11-17 14:10:35 5

Ceramic substrates high dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, low coefficient of thermal expansion, etc., can well meet the conditions of miniaturization and integration of the electronics industry, so electronic ceramics in the 5G era is very promising, and its research and development is also receiving more and more attention.


There are five categories of electronic ceramic powders: insulating device porcelain, capacitor porcelain, ferroelectric ceramics, semiconductor ceramics and ion ceramics. These five types of electronic ceramic materials have their own characteristics and will be used in different fields and play different roles.


I. Semiconductor ceramics

  Semiconductor ceramics are ceramics with semiconductor properties and conductivity of about 10-6 to 105S/m. The conductivity of semiconductor ceramics changes significantly with external conditions (temperature, light, electric field, atmosphere and temperature, etc.), so it can transform changes in physical quantities of the external environment into electrical signals to make sensitive components for various purposes, some of which are as follows.


① Thermal semiconductor ceramic materials, also known as thermistor ceramics, refers to ceramics whose conductivity varies significantly with temperature. Thermosensitive ceramics are mainly used for temperature compensation, temperature measurement, temperature control, fire detection, overheating protection and color TV demagnetization.


② photosensitive semiconductor ceramic materials refer to ceramics with photoelectric conductivity or photovoltaic effect. Such as cadmium sulfide, cadmium telluride, gallium arsenide, indium phosphide, bismuth germanate and other ceramics or single crystals. The conductance increases when light is shone onto its surface. Mainly used as automatic control of optical switches and solar cells, etc.


③ Gas-sensitive semiconductor ceramic materials refer to ceramics whose conductivity varies with the type of gas molecules they are exposed to. Such as zinc oxide, tin oxide, iron oxide, vanadium pentoxide, zirconium oxide, nickel oxide and cobalt oxide systems of ceramics. They are mainly used for leak detection, disaster prevention and alarm and measurement of different gases.


④ Moisture-sensitive semiconductor ceramic materials refer to ceramics whose conductivity varies significantly with humidity. Such as ferric oxide, titanium oxide, potassium oxide - iron oxide, magnesium chromate - titanium oxide and zinc oxide - lithium oxide - vanadium oxide and other systems of ceramics. Their conductivity is particularly sensitive to water and is suitable for use as humidity measurement and control.

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II, ferroelectric ceramics

Ferroelectric ceramics are ferroelectric ceramic materials with spontaneous polarization properties at temperatures below the Curie temperature. The important feature of ferroelectric ceramics, which have many electric domains, is that their polarization intensity is not linearly related to the applied voltage and has a significant hysteresis effect. Since the electrical properties of these ceramics are physically similar to the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials, they are called ferroelectric ceramics. It is not necessary to use iron as its main component.


Most of the common ferroelectric ceramics are of chalcogenide type structure, such as barium titanate ceramics and their solid solutions, but also tungsten bronze type, bismuth-containing layered compounds and pyrochlore type structures. At present, through solid solution, ion substitution and doping modification to obtain practical ferroelectric oxide ceramics have reached more than a thousand kinds, can be used to produce capacitive, piezoelectric, thermal, electrostriction, electroacoustic, electro-optical and other effects, as sensing, drive, storage, modulation and other device materials.


 Third, the insulation device porcelain

Insulation device porcelain, also known as electrical insulation ceramics, generally has a high volume resistivity and high dielectric strength to reduce leakage loss and withstand high voltage, but also has high mechanical strength, good chemical stability and other characteristics. Typical device porcelain are.


① magnesium porcelain: used in general high-frequency radio equipment, such as radar, television sets are often used to manufacture insulation parts.


② alumina porcelain: initially used for automotive spark plugs. Spark plug working environment is extremely harsh, ignition instant T up to 3000 ℃, pressure up to 4MPa, rapid cold and heat, must be heat-resistant shock. Also to ensure insulation, high voltage resistance. Good mechanical properties.


③ Mullite porcelain: is a ceramic with mullite and quartz as the main crystalline phase, is the earliest application of high-frequency device porcelain. Mullite porcelain mechanical strength and electrical properties are poor, so only used for general high-frequency device parts; because it has a surface microstructure, can be used as a substrate for the deposition of carbon film, it is still used in large quantities to make carbon film resistor substrate.


Fourth, the capacitor porcelain

As the name implies, capacitor porcelain is used to make capacitors of ceramic materials. Mainly can be divided into high frequency, low frequency capacitor porcelain and semiconductor capacitor porcelain. Among them, high-frequency capacitor porcelain belongs to the first class capacitor porcelain; low-frequency capacitor porcelain belongs to the second class capacitor porcelain.


Low-frequency capacitor porcelain is characterized by high dielectric constant ε, loss angle tangent and larger tanδ and ε with the rate of change of temperature, mainly used in the manufacture of low-frequency circuit bypass, DC isolation and filtering with ceramic capacitors; semiconductor capacitor porcelain features small dielectric loss, insulation resistance and high working voltage; high-frequency capacitor porcelain is mainly used for the manufacture of high stability ceramic capacitors and temperature compensation capacitors.


Five, ion ceramics

Ionic ceramics are in certain conditions (temperature, pressure) with electron (or hole) conductivity or ionic conductivity characteristics of ceramics, mainly including cationic conductor ceramics, mainly including silver ion conductor, sodium ion conductor, copper ion conductor, lithium ion conductor, etc., and anion conductor ceramics, mainly including oxygen ion conductor, fluorine ion conductor, their main uses are.


① Making solid electrolyte batteries, such as lithium-iodine and sodium-sulfur batteries. Lithium iodine batteries are used as power sources for pacemakers, and sodium-sulfur batteries are used as drive energy for vehicles or energy storage devices for large power stations.


②Make ion-selective electrodes, such as zirconium oxide to make oxygen analyzer probe, can directly determine the concentration of oxygen in molten steel. β-alumina to make sodium ion-selective electrodes, can determine the sodium content of the alloy. In addition, it can also be used to purify sodium metal or prepare hydrogen and oxygen, etc.


③Make pressure-sensitive, gas-sensitive, moisture-sensitive and other sensitive components and other electrochemical devices.


④Make high-temperature heat generators or high-temperature electrodes or conductive materials in magnetic fluid power generation, etc.


It can be learned that the demand for electronic ceramic components is steadily increasing driven by the markets of communication, computer, electronic instrumentation, household appliances and digital circuit technology.

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