Ceramic adapter plates in 3-D packaging technology

Ceramic adapter plates in 3-D packaging technology

2022-05-24 13:35:37 1

High performance, high package density, and integrated circuits (ICs) containing multiple functions have effectively driven the high speed development of three-dimensional integration and packaging (3DPackaging). This packaging method has various advantages such as high efficiency, small size, low power consumption, weak delay, small parasitic and low noise, etc. It has become a key branch of the emerging system-level packaging technology and plays an increasingly important role in the future packaging of ICs and even microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).


Introduction of adapter board

As a new three-dimensional packaging mode of large-scale integrated circuit application technology, adapter board technology is gradually becoming a high-density module integration packaging technology of great interest. Its structure refers to the use of different processing techniques to achieve a high depth to width ratio vertical through-hole in the appropriate location of organic or inorganic substrates, vertical through-hole can be filled with different materials, the overall can be seen as the use of through-hole vertical interconnection of the package body, to achieve the chip to chip, chip to substrate, substrate to substrate, different spacing between the input and output port interconnection, to complete the chip and wafer, chip to chip vertical This enables the vertical interconnection between chip and wafer and chip and chip to chip, thus realizing the expansion of the package in the vertical direction and promoting the miniaturization and heterogeneous integration of the system module.


Transfer board technology classification and application


According to the different substrate materials, adapter boards can be broadly divided into four types of organic, silicon-based, glass and ceramic.


(1) organic adapter plate. Organic adapter plate substrate material is usually glass fiber as a reinforcing agent organic resin as the base material, the use of lamination process can be a large-scale organic adapter plate manufacturing. Compared with other materials adapter plate, organic adapter plate cost is lower, while its processing process is simple and mature, compared to other adapter plates such as silicon-based, organic adapter plate roughness is smaller, so through-hole metallization is less difficult.


However, the thermal performance of the organic adapter substrate is poor, its coefficient of thermal expansion and silicon components differ significantly, the yield is low, with the increase in the number of layers of organic adapter board appears obvious warpage, to a certain extent to limit the application of organic adapter board in the field of high-integration three-dimensional packaging.


(2) silicon-based adapter plate. Silicon based adapter plate is a kind of adapter plate technology has been widely used in industrial production. However, silicon as a semiconductor material with a certain degree of conductivity, in the electronic system there is through-hole leakage current and signal coupling and crosstalk problems, and the situation is particularly severe in high-frequency circuits.


(3) glass adapter plate. Glass adapter plate using glass through-hole technology can to some extent overcome the shortcomings due to the characteristics of silicon semiconductors. Usually the main component of the glass used is SiO2, high resistivity (1012-1016Ω-cm), signal isolation is better, and stable performance at high temperatures. However, the glass adapter plate due to its substrate brittleness, in the substrate through-hole processing process is more difficult, the yield is lower, the cost is higher, while in the process over the existence of subtle defects will lead to the formation of through-hole leakage current.


(4) ceramic adapter plate. Ceramic adapter plate using ceramic through-hole technology, based on the good insulation properties and mechanical properties of ceramic materials, so there are greater advantages in the adapter plate packaging technology. Usually ceramic materials are AlN, Al2O3 and BeO, etc., because BeO has a certain degree of toxicity, so the use of less. AlN ceramic because it has a similar low coefficient of thermal expansion with silicon, high resistivity, while its thermal conductivity is much higher than other ceramic materials, so the chip and chip, the signal loss between the upper and lower surfaces of the substrate is small, good signal integrity.


Considering the performance indexes of electrical, thermal and mechanical aspects, TCV adapter plates based on AlN materials have better performance and good development prospects.


AlN ceramic adapter plate

1, the preparation of ceramic adapter plate substrate

Due to the high melting point of AlN ceramics (2232 ℃), hardness, so the preparation of ceramic substrate is more difficult, usually using low melting point glass or other flux doping way to process the ceramic.


In addition, the sintering of AlN ceramics is usually done under nitrogen conditions where the organic matter evaporates gradually during the sintering process, avoiding the alteration of the composition ratio of the ceramic material due to the metal nitrides generated during the sintering process, which affects the substrate properties.

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2, ceramic adapter plate through-hole formation


Due to the high hardness of AlN ceramics, and sintered from the slurry press, machine cutting, drilling or EDM and other traditional processing methods are difficult to achieve the requirements of the ceramic adapter plate through-hole high depth to width ratio, the current main use of laser drilling technology to achieve.


3, ceramic adapter plate pore filling


At present, in the field of three-dimensional packaging of ceramic adapter plate substrate pore research is relatively small. Due to the small size of the internal pores of ceramic substrates, and the distribution of pores is not uniform, so the filling material needs to have good fluidity, high insulation, thermal stability and other characteristics, comparative analysis of a variety of liquid materials, including organic polymer materials polyimide comprehensive performance is more suitable for pore filling, its fluidity is better, insulation performance is stronger, high temperature resistance to 400 ℃ or more, and stable performance at high temperatures, heating process No bubble generation in the heating process, even if the cured liquid volume has been reduced, the pore can not be completely filled, but still can greatly reduce the pore penetration rate, reduce the loss of through-hole signal transmission and crosstalk.


4、The preparation of ceramic adapter plate redistribution layer

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The signal interconnection between the upper and lower surfaces of the substrate can be realized through the vertical vias inside the ceramic adapter plate, effectively reducing the number of interconnection lines and reducing the interconnection line distance. At the same time, the substrate surface can be formed by lithography, development, electroplating and other processes, and through the mask version with a specific pattern processing to form a specific metallization pattern, and the substrate through-hole of the upper and lower surfaces of the interconnection to achieve signal transmission channels, complete signal transmission on the surface of the substrate, the interior of the substrate and between adjacent substrates, that is, through the substrate surface multilayer redistribution layer and substrate through-hole, to achieve through-hole to through-hole, through-hole and The signal interconnection between through-hole and through-hole, between through-hole and substrate, and between substrate and substrate is realized through the multilayer redistribution layer on the substrate surface and substrate through-hole.


Reference Sources.

[1] Yating Sun. Key technologies for ceramic adapter boards

[2] Zhe Liu. Preparation and characterization of aluminum nitride modified polyimide dielectrics for silicon adapter plates

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