Applicable to LED packaging with ceramic substrates and aluminum substrates big competition

Applicable to LED packaging with ceramic substrates and aluminum substrates big competition

2022-05-24 13:35:37 5

The heat dissipation of LEDs will have an important impact on the efficiency, lifetime and reliability of LED chips, which requires LED packages to have good heat dissipation capabilities. Therefore, as an important component of the LED package substrate is not only the role of the carrier chip, but also one of the important channels for heat dissipation, and its structure and materials play a key role in the heat dissipation process.


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At present, LED heat sink substrate mainly uses metal (aluminum, copper) substrate and ceramic substrate. Metal substrates are mainly aluminum substrates, copper substrates, etc. Ceramic substrates are mainly aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, silicon nitride, etc.


Aluminum Laminate

Aluminum laminate is a metal-based copper clad board with good heat dissipation function. Generally, the single panel is composed of three layers of structure, which are circuit layer (copper foil), insulation layer and metal base layer. For high-end use there are also designed for double-sided panels, the structure of the circuit layer, insulation layer, aluminum base, insulation layer, circuit layer. Very few applications are multilayer boards, which can be made by laminating a common multilayer with insulation layer and aluminum base.


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Aluminum substrate is widely used in LED lamps and lanterns. The material of general circuit board is glass fiber, but because of the LED heat generation is larger, so the LED lamps and lanterns are generally used with aluminum substrate, which can conduct heat fast. Metal substrate heat dissipation performance in general, but better than FR4, the existing metal substrate can reach 3W/m.K, while FR4 only 0.3W/m.K..


Ceramic Substrates

Ceramic substrate is made of ceramic material, generally by alumina, aluminum nitride, silicon nitride, etc. as ceramic material. Good thermal performance, can avoid short circuit damage caused by insufficient heat dissipation. It is 100 times of ordinary FR4, ten times of metal substrate heat dissipation, alumina ceramic substrate thermal conductivity is 30-50 W/m.K, if the aluminum nitride substrate thermal conductivity can be removed 170 W/m.K. It has the following properties.

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From the heat dissipation data, the heat dissipation of ceramic substrate is more than 7 times that of aluminum substrate, which is divided into aluminum oxide ceramic substrate and aluminum nitride ceramic substrate, aluminum nitride ceramic substrate is 5 times the heat dissipation of aluminum oxide ceramic substrate.


Aluminum substrate and ceramic substrate LED applications than the competition


Then applied in LED packaging heat dissipation, ceramic substrate and aluminum metal substrate which is more suitable? A researcher for ceramic substrate and aluminum substrate in the practical application of LED chips for comparison.


With 88 LED chips as experimental objects, including 59 high-power chips, 29 low-power chips, in the same arrangement were fixed in the aluminum substrate, alumina ceramic substrate, aluminum nitride ceramic substrate for testing.

Aluminum substrate.

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Aluminum nitride ceramic substrates.

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The data of the test results for different substrates are shown in the following figures.

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氮化铝/氮化硅陶瓷基板抛光解决方案

Through the above thermal diagram and data comparison can be seen aluminum nitride ceramic substrate heat dissipation performance is outstanding, aluminum nitride ceramic material itself is an insulator, no need to do insulation layer on top of the PCB like the metal substrate, through the vertical interconnection hole to form a conductive channel, and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the ceramic also matches most chips.


Aluminum substrate insulation layer is the largest thermal conductivity barrier in the power module structure. The better the thermal conductivity of the insulation layer, the more conducive to the diffusion of heat generated by the operation of the device, and the more conducive to reducing the operating temperature of the device, so as to improve the power load of the module, reduce the volume, extend the life, improve power output and other purposes. In other words, the aluminum substrate is limited by the insulation layer. Ceramic substrates do not have an insulating layer, and there is no such trouble.


If it comes to high-power LED modules, which require extremely strong heat dissipation, ceramic substrates are needed instead. Ceramic substrate line alignment accuracy, for the industry recognized as excellent thermal conductivity and heat dissipation performance of the material, is the most suitable solution for high power LED heat dissipation, although the cost is higher than the metal substrate, but the lighting requirements of heat dissipation and stability than the metal substrate.


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